Córdoba is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonised by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. Caliph Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the centre of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had second-class status. It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista. The historic centre was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The historic centre has a wealth of monuments preserving large traces of Roman, Arabic, and Christian times. Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in Spain and Europe, with average high temperatures around 37 °C (99 °F) in July and August.
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