Titan, the largest moon of the ringed gas giant planet of Saturn, is also the second largest moon in the Solar System, being slightly more voluminous than the planet Mercury. What makes it most unique, however, is that it is the only moon in the Solar System to sport anything more than a negligible trace atmosphere. It is also the only celestial body beyond Earth to have stable bodies of liquid on its surface. Just like Earth, it has lakes and rivers, but these are quite different to those which we know here on Earth. Titan’s extremely cold surface temperatures averaging about -180°C mean that water would only exist in the form of ice as hard as granite. However, instead of flowing with water, the rivers on the moon flow with a mixture of liquid methane and ethane which only exist as a gas in natural conditions on Earth. As if this were not bizarre enough, Titan also has a climate which, in many ways, is similar to Earth. It snows and rains with ethane and methane and it has storms, including a permanent hurricane on the south pole. Geologically, it is a young world with few craters and a surface marked by high plateaus and sandy dunes.
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