Ministry within honour-shame cultures is a widely discussed topic today. The majority world and especially the East, as we’ve come to realise, doesn’t think the way we do. In a sense, they work on a completely different operating system, which means Western missionaries must adapt our default language and “coding” when presenting the gospel. Cultural awareness is the first step, though complete cultural adaptation doesn’t follow as the necessary goal. This is the case in any context, Western or otherwise. Inevitable perils lurk when anyone tries to contextualise the gospel message to a given culture. So while great strides have been made in evangelism as it relates to honour-shame contexts, the proverbial pendulum can swing too far.
Here are five dangers I see for those seeking to minister in honour-shame contexts. Recognizing them will hopefully protect us from unhelpful overcorrection.
- Disconnect Honour from Obedience
Western bias no doubt affects our reading of Scripture. You may have noticed this in a common interpretation of Romans 3:23. Some simply speak of missing the mark, or coming up short, of perfectly obeying God’s law. But that’s not exactly what Paul says. Rather, he equates sin with imperfectly and incompletely glorifying God. Dig up the dirty roots of human sinfulness and death, and you find dishonour. Adam and Eve didn’t honour God, nor were they thankful, so they disobeyed his word. This is the pattern of all sinfulness (Rom. 1:21). Fundamentally, the human problem is one of failing to glorify God as he deserves. But the biblical witness doesn’t end there. John succinctly defines sin as lawlessness (1 John 3:4). Rather than contradicting Paul, this definition helps us see the link between honour and obedience (see Rom. 1). When Adam failed to honour God, he transgressed the law. We dishonour by disobeying. So Jesus can say, “If you love me, keep my commandments” (John 14:15). Or Paul can restate the fifth commandment to honour father and mother by writing, “Obey your parents” (Eph. 6:1).
- Ignore the Biblical (Eastern) Roots of Law and Guilt
A missionary once related to me that law is primarily a Western concept, unique in history to certain cultures. But the Bible makes clear that commandments and guilt are as old as humanity. Further, the law of Moses is an ancient Near Eastern document—and more than a mere artefact of Jewish culture. It’s the very Word of God. We should recognise, then, that God has always related to his covenant people through promises and commands. In Adam, as in Christ, God has chosen to relate to all humanity through headship and imputation. Guilt and innocence are therefore universal concepts. What’s more, Paul suggests that the whole world is condemned by the law (Rom. 3:19), even if that law is their conscience bearing witness against them (Rom. 2:14–16). If people lack a sense of guilt or shame before the righteous requirement of God’s law, that’s not a by-product of an impartial worldview but an active rejection of God’s standards. It’s running from revelation, natural or special. So if we as evangelists avoid talking about law and guilt in honour-shame contexts, we abandon one of God’s appointed means for revealing our need for Christ.
- Make a Mistake You Wish to Correct
Just as the West has been blind in many ways to the significance of honour and shame in Scripture, we can make a similarly egregious error in Eastern cultures if we ignore concepts of law and guilt. In other words, missionaries are in danger of making the very mistake they wish to correct. Granted, Western Christians need to wake up to their proclivities toward materialism and consumerism. They need to come face to face with the deeply biblical reality of shame and social exclusion. They need to see, for instance, that the hellishness of eternal punishment is separation from the presence of God. They need to see interdependence and familial love in the church rather than individualism or pure intellectualism. In fact, we could say those countercultural lessons are not tertiary but central. But if so, the same reality must be true for our brothers and sisters in honour-shame contexts. If their home cultures are blind to certain aspects of biblical revelation—especially those as fundamental as law and righteousness and guilt and imputation—then the solution must not be to avoid such concepts.
- Allow Culture, Not Scripture, to Be Normative
Behind all of this is the ancient problem of syncretism, when Christianity doesn’t transform the community but simply conforms to existing patterns or structures. In syncretism, Christianity is added to prevailing religious and cultural organisms like a grafted branch. It may flourish—and often does—but the guiding principle remains in the existent cultural vine. In anthropology, we speak of cultural norms. Such nomenclature reveals something about the nature of culture: it becomes a law (norm) unto itself. It sets the standards. It produces values and mores. It demands appropriate behaviour. It even norms our perceptions and emotions. But that is the role of God’s Word for the Christian community. As we read it, we may tend to look for parts that relate to us, that translates into our culture. But God’s Word was never meant to be used so simply. In the church, Christ should be the ruling norm, and he rules his church through Scripture properly handled and rightly interpreted.
- Misrepresent Biblical Discipleship
Put another way; the Bible doesn’t merely provide us with a variety of discourse alternatives for communicating in disparate contexts. Instead, it supplies a comprehensive analysis of humanity from God’s perspective. He tells us what we should think of ourselves and our cultures. Which means that guilt-innocence paradigms—I have especially in mind the weighty theological categories of propitiation, justification, imputation, and sanctification—have a place in our discipleship. That said, I do believe it’s helpful to contextualise the gospel in evangelism. We should, like Jesus and Paul, look for natural bridges to our audience. We should speak a language they understand. We should meet them on their turf. We should be clear about the gospel by drawing on cultural sensitivities or even felt needs, whether that is uncleanness or powerlessness or darkness or shame. The gospel speaks to all of these. But that doesn’t mean we should co-op the whole of Christian discipleship into the values of a given culture. We must never downplay the law of Christ or the centrality of obedience as his disciple. If a host culture diminishes disobedience or lacks categories for transgression, the solution isn’t to sidestep the issue. It’s to teach believers that to honour the Master means to follow in his steps.
Credit: Elliot Clark for The Gospel Coalition, 12 July 2018.